Which of the following are types of cytopathic effects?

Common types
  • Total destruction. Total destruction of the host cell monolayer is the most severe type of CPE. …
  • Subtotal destruction. Subtotal destruction of the host cell monolayer is less severe than total destruction. …
  • Focal degeneration. …
  • Swelling and clumping. …
  • Foamy degeneration. …
  • Syncytium. …
  • Inclusion bodies.

What is the activation of a prophage called?

Zygotic induction occurs when a bacterial cell carrying the DNA of a bacterial virus transfers its own DNA along with the viral DNA (prophage) into the new host cell. This has the effect of causing the host cell to break apart.

What is the cytopathic effect of influenza virus?

The cytopathic effect of influenza virus is seen microscopically in characteristic degenerative changes in the epithelial cells of the bronchial and bronchiolar mucosa.

What are infectious protein particles called?

Prusiner and colleagues identified the “proteinaceous infectious particle,” a name that was shortened to “prion” (pronounced “pree-on”). Prions can enter the brain through infection, or they can arise from mutations in the gene that encodes the protein.

What is meant by cytopathic effect?

cytopathic effect (CPE), structural changes in a host cell resulting from viral infection. CPE occurs when the infecting virus causes lysis (dissolution) of the host cell or when the cell dies without lysis because of its inability to reproduce.

Which of the following is a cytopathic effect of viral infection?

A particularly striking cytopathic effect of some viral infections is the formation of syncytia, or polykaryocytes, which are large cytoplasmic masses that contain many nuclei (poly, many; karyon, nucleus) and are usually produced by fusion of infected cells (Fig. 44-2).

What is virion and prion?

Prions are infectious particles that contain no nucleic acids, and viroids are small plant pathogens that do not encode proteins.

What are prions viroids?

Viroids are small, circular, single-stranded molecules of infectious RNA that cause several plant diseases. Prions are infectious protein particles responsible for a group of transmissible and/or inherited neurodegenerative diseases as a result of prion protein misfolding.

What type of molecule is a prion?

Prions are misfolded proteins with the ability to transmit their misfolded shape onto normal variants of the same protein. They characterize several fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases in humans and many other animals.

What do prions do?

A prion is a type of protein that can trigger normal proteins in the brain to fold abnormally.

Is prions eukaryotic or prokaryotic?

Prions (proteinaceous infectious particles) are infectious agents composed primarily of protein which induce the existing polypeptides in host cells to take on its form. Cellular – bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic cells while algae, fungi, and protozoa have eukaryotic cells.

What is virus virion?

virion, an entire virus particle, consisting of an outer protein shell called a capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid (either ribonucleic or deoxyribonucleic acid—RNA or DNA). The core confers infectivity, and the capsid provides specificity to the virus.

What is a prion?

The term “prions” refers to abnormal, pathogenic agents that are transmissible and are able to induce abnormal folding of specific normal cellular proteins called prion proteins that are found most abundantly in the brain.

What is a prion example?

Prion diseases include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or “mad cow” disease) in cattle, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and variant CJD in humans, scrapie in sheep, and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer, elk, moose and reindeer.

What causes CJD?

What causes CJD? CJD appears to be caused by an abnormal infectious protein called a prion. These prions accumulate at high levels in the brain and cause irreversible damage to nerve cells. While the abnormal prions are technically infectious, they’re very different from viruses and bacteria.

Is rabies a prion?

This chapter discusses rabies, a viral encephalitis feared since antiquity that is still an incurable disease; slow virus infections; and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies—rare neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by unconventional agents called “prions.”

Where are prions found?

Prions are primarily found in the brain, the spinal cord and the immune system. British cows are thought to have developed the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by eating ground-up brains, spleens and similar material. Other body parts were thought to be relatively safe for consumption.

What are prions 11?

Prion is an aberrant or misfolded protein that causes fatal sickness in animals and humans by infecting normal variations of the same protein with its misfolded structure. It is an infectious RNA particle.