What is an example genetic mutation?
Other common mutation examples in humans are Angelman syndrome, Canavan disease, color blindness, cri-du-chat syndrome, cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, haemochromatosis, haemophilia, Klinefelter syndrome, phenylketonuria, Prader–Willi syndrome, Tay–Sachs disease, and Turner syndrome.
What is a genetic mutation called?
A gene variant is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. This type of genetic change used to be known as a gene mutation, but because changes in DNA do not always cause disease, it is thought that gene variant is a more accurate term.
How would you describe two types of genetic mutations?
Two major categories of mutations are germline mutations and somatic mutations. Germline mutations occur in gametes. These mutations are especially significant because they can be transmitted to offspring and every cell in the offspring will have the mutation. Somatic mutations occur in other cells of the body.
What is the most common genetic mutation?
In fact, the G-T mutation is the single most common mutation in human DNA. It occurs about once in every 10,000 to 100,000 base pairs — which doesn’t sound like a lot, until you consider that the human genome contains 3 billion base pairs.
What causes a genetic mutation?
Mutations can result from DNA copying mistakes made during cell division, exposure to ionizing radiation, exposure to chemicals called mutagens, or infection by viruses. Germ line mutations occur in the eggs and sperm and can be passed on to offspring, while somatic mutations occur in body cells and are not passed on.
Which best describes somatic mutations?
An alteration in DNA that occurs after conception. Somatic mutations can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells (sperm and egg) and therefore are not passed on to children. These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases.
What are the types of genetic mutations?
There are three types of DNA Mutations: base substitutions, deletions and insertions.
- Base Substitutions. Single base substitutions are called point mutations, recall the point mutation Glu —–> Val which causes sickle-cell disease.
- Deletions. …
How do you identify gene mutations?
All exploit one or more of the basic properties of DNA or the enzymes that act upon it. Single base pair mutations can be identified by any of the following methods: Direct sequencing, which involves identifying each individual base pair, in sequence, and comparing the sequence to that of the normal gene.
Which of the following is the best description of a Mutagen?
Anything that causes a mutation (a change in the DNA of a cell). DNA changes caused by mutagens may harm cells and cause certain diseases, such as cancer. Examples of mutagens include radioactive substances, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, and certain chemicals.
Are somatic mutations inherited?
Unlike germline mutations, which can be passed on to the descendants of an organism, somatic mutations are not usually transmitted to descendants.
Are germline mutations inherited?
A gene change in a body’s reproductive cell (egg or sperm) that becomes incorporated into the DNA of every cell in the body of the offspring. Germline mutations are passed on from parents to offspring.
Which of the following best describes the type of mutation shown in Figure 1 that leads to sickle cell?
Which of the following best describes the type of mutation shown in Figure 1 that leads to sickle-cell anemia? Sickle-cell anemia is associated with a mutation in the gene encoding the beta subunit of hemoglobin that results in a change from glutamic acid to valine at position 6.
What best describes the outcome of DNA replication?
The result of DNA replication is two DNA molecules consisting of one new and one old chain of nucleotides. This is why DNA replication is described as semi-conservative, half of the chain is part of the original DNA molecule, half is brand new.
Which of these is currently considered the best definition of a gene?
a change in the sequence of DNA. Which of these is currently considered the best definition of a gene? A gene codes for either a polypeptide or an RNA molecule. The genetic code is essentially the same for all organisms.
Which of the following best explains what process is represented in Figure 1 quizlet?
Which of the following correctly explains the process shown in Figure 1 ? Initiation of transcription is occurring because a strand of RNA is being produced from a DNA template strand. Figure 1 represents part of a process that occurs in eukaryotic cells.
Which mutation most likely results in the mutated hemoglobin gene?
Genetics. Sickle cell disease is caused by mutations in the beta-globin (HBB) gene that lead to the production of an abnormal version of a subunit of hemoglobin — the protein responsible for carrying oxygen in red blood cells. This mutated version of the protein is known as hemoglobin S.
Which of the following best explains how mutations change the hemoglobin protein?
Which of the following best explains how mutations change the hemoglobin protein? Mutations cause a change in a single amino acid, resulting in a mutated beta-globin molecule and a nonfunctional hemoglobin molecule.
Which of the following best explains how continuity of genetic information?
Which of the following best explains how continuity of genetic information in cells is ensured across generations? Replication uses a parental strand of as a template to create a new strand of . Nucleotide bases in one strand can only be paired with specific bases in the other strand.
Which of the following best explains what process is represented in Figure 1 Model of a process involving nucleic acids?
(Figure 1: Model of a process involving nucleic acids) Which of the following best explains what process is represented in Figure 1? New DNA strands are being synthesized in the 5′ to 3′ direction from their DNA templates.
Which of the following best explains how bacteria can be genetically?
Which of the following best explains how bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce a desired antigen? The gene coding for the antigen can be inserted into plasmids that can be used to transform the bacteria.
Which of the following best explains how genetic information is transferred from the parents during the process of meiosis?
When organisms reproduce sexually, both parents pass genetic information to the offspring. Which of the following best explains how genetic information is transferred from the parents during the process of meiosis? Each parent contributes half of the offspring’s chromosomes.
How is continuity of genetic information in cells ensured across generations?
A cell’s nuclear membrane encloses the chromosomes in a hospitable environment. After DNA replication, a cell begins nuclear division, a process called mitosis. … In this way, mitosis ensures genetic continuity across generations of cells.
How does meiosis maintain genetic continuity?
The process of meiosis preserves genetic continuity for future offspring by ensuring that two sexually reproducing organisms produce offspring that have the same number of chromosomes as the parents. … Second, it ensures that the offspring will be able to mate with other organisms of the same species.